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ISSN : 2233-6710(Print)
ISSN : 2384-2121(Online)
Journal of Asia Pacific Counseling Vol.13 No.1 pp.79-94

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Intersectionality of Sex, Race, and Poverty in Adolescents: A Descriptive Analysis

Isak Kim1, Nayoung Kim2, Hyemi Jang3
1Department of Counseling, University of Nebraska Omaha
2Department of Behavioral Sciences, New York Institute of Technology
3Educational Leadership, Policy, and Human Development, North Carolina State University
Corresponding Author
Isak Kim, Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Isak Kim, 6001 Dodge St, Omaha, NE 68182, USA.


Objective: The present study examined the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) based on the intersectionality of sex, race/ethnicity, and household income.
Methods: The 2017-2018 National Survey of Children’s Health was used. Our sample was limited to parents/guardians of 12-17 aged adolescents (N = 21,496). Twenty mutually exclusive subgroups were created by sex, income, and race/ethnicity. In addition, the prevalence of individual and cumulative ACEs per each intersectional group was assessed.
Results: Specific intersectional groups including adolescents who are racial minorities and from low-income families were at increased risk of experiencing a higher number of ACEs. The top five highest prevalent groups for each ACE were identified, and results indicated that low-income groups, regardless of their race/ethnicity and sex, were at greater risk of belonging to the top five highest prevalent groups.
Conclusion: Specific intersectional groups were at a higher risk of reporting ACEs, which suggests that different individual characteristics, such as sex, race/ethnicity, and household income, create a disproportionate number of ACEs to occur.