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ISSN : 2233-6710(Print)
ISSN : 2384-2121(Online)
Journal of Asia Pacific Counseling Vol.9 No.2 pp.119-135

Meta-Analysis: The Role of Race/Ethnicity and Gender in Career Choice

Hansori Jang1,Seohong Pak2,Donghoon Lee3
1 The University of Toledo
2 National Board of Medical Examiners
3 SUNY Oneonta, Oneonta
Corresponding Author
Hansori Jang, School of Wellness and Intervention, 3100C College of Health and Human Services, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606. Tel: 319-512-1105 Fax: 419-530-7879


The purpose of this study is to explore differences in race/ethnicity and gender groups related to three career choices and development components: (1) career choice and aspirations, (2) perceptions of opportunities and barriers in career choices, and (3) career decision-making and explorations. This meta-analysis compiled the quantitative studies published from June 2004 to 2017. Forty-three studies were retrieved and coded for the effects of gender, while 37 studies were collected to investigate the effects of race/ethnicity. Results demonstrated that the gender groups had significant effects on two outcome components: career choice and aspirations and career decision-making and explorations. Career choice and aspirations and perceptions of opportunities and barriers had statistically significant differences between race/ethnicity groups. This study confirms the pivotal role of social contextual factors in choosing a career. Moreover, it provides a comprehensive understanding of the different perspectives of minority groups related to career choices.