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ISSN : 2233-6710(Print)
ISSN : 2384-2121(Online)
Journal of Asia Pacific Counseling Vol.9 No.1 pp.1-19

Career Guidance and Counseling in Secondary Schools in Hong Kong: A Historical Overview

Lawrence P.W. Wong1, Mantak Yuen2
1 Office of Careers and Placement Services The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
2 Centre for Advancement in Inclusive and Special Education Faculty of Education University of Hong Kong The paper is based on the first author’s doctoral research under the supervision of the second author at the Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong
Corresponding Author Lawrence P.W. Wong, TU308 Office of Careers and Placement Services The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong China


This article provides an overview of the evolution of career guidance and counseling in secondary schools in Hong Kong over the last 60 years. The first stage of development (early 1950s to late 1970s) marked recovery from the aftermath of World War II and the Cultural Revolution in China. The earliest examples of career services in secondary schools began in this period. The second stage (approximately 1970–1990) marked the gradual evolution from a vocation-oriented approach to a developmental approach in career counseling. The third stage (1990s–2000) saw increased recognition of the importance of career guidance and counseling in a comprehensive school program, parallel to greater involvement of all teachers. The fourth stage (early 2000 to 2018) has seen continual growth in career guidance and counseling practices within schools based on contemporary theories of career development and best practices research.