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ISSN : 2233-6710(Print)
ISSN : 2384-2121(Online)
Journal of Asia Pacific Counseling Vol.8 No.1 pp.1-17

Achievement Goal Orientation in Chinese Societies: Implications for College Counseling

Ching-Chen Chen1, Wei-Wen Chen2, George B. Richardson3, Chia-Laing Dai1, Jared La
u1, Danica G. Hays1
1University of Nevada, Las Vegas
2University of Macau
3University of Cincinnati
Corresponding Author
Ching-Chen Chen, College of Education, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, MS 3001, Las Vegas, NV 89154-3001, USA


Achievement goal orientation has been linked to various academic and psychosocial outcomes within the United States and globally. As college counselors increasingly work with a diversified student body, it is imperative that they understand goal orientation and how it should be assessed among various cultures and subcultures. This study evaluated the functioning of the Achievement Goal Scale items across samples from Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau and tested whether metric (i.e., goal orientation dimensions had the same meanings) and scalar (i.e., means could be compared across groups) invariance held. Findings suggest that goal orientation can be assessed across Chinese societies and, therefore, used to inform the development of culturally appropriate counseling approaches when working with college students. Implications for counseling practice and research are provided.