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ISSN : 2233-6710(Print)
ISSN : 2384-2121(Online)
Journal of Asia Pacific Counseling Vol.3 No.1 pp.89-97

Developing a Korean Language Measure of Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation

Jack Mearns, Jae-Hwang Park, Salvatore J. Catanzaro

California State University
Keimyung University
Illinois State University
Received November 6, 2012, Revision received February 7, 2013, Accepted February 18, 2013


Negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE) represent people's confidence that, when they are in an unpleasant mood, theywill be capable of improving that mood. Catanzaro and Mearns (1990) created the NMR Scale to measure NMRE. Evidencefor the cross-cultural validity of NMRE is provided by translations of the NMR Scale into European and Asian languages. Thecurrent paper presents two studies assessing the reliability and preliminary validity of a new Korean-language NMR Scale (theNMR-K). The NMR-K was created following an emic approach that went beyond literal translation. Initially 60 items weretested, including Korean translations of the original 30-item American NMR Scale, as well as Korean translations of 19 itemscreated for Japanese and Chinese language NMR Scales. Finally, 11 new items were written to assess methods of regulatingmoods that may be especially relevant to Korean culture. Over 1,700 Korean college students completed the NMR-K andmeasures of mood, adjustment and socially desirable responding. Psychometric analyses suggested 30 items should be retained;the resulting scale had a Cronbach's alpha of .90. The 30-item NMR-K correlated positively with happiness, life satisfactionand positive affect. It correlated negatively with depression, suicidal ideation, negative affect and symptoms ofpsychopathology. The NMR-K correlated significantly but modestly with social desirability. These results support thereliability and preliminary validity of the NMR-K as a measure of NMRE in South Korea and provide further evidence for thecross-cultural validity of the NMRE construct.